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International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience (IJPAB)
Year : 2017, Volume : 5, Issue : 6
First page : (1650) Last page : (1659)
Article doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.5922

Genome Sequencing and its Role in Plant Breeding

U. Mehraj1* and M. Ahmad2
1Division of genetics and Plant Breeding, Wadura, Sopore;2Mountain Agriculture Research and Extension Station, Kargil;  Sheri- Kashmir University of Agriculture Science and Technology Shalimar Kashmir, India
*Corresponding Author E-mail: uzmamehrajskuastk@rediffmail.com
Received: 23.10.2017  |  Revised: 30.11.2017   |  Accepted: 4.12.2017  


Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Gene sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. The entire information lies in its base sequence and the determination of this is of central importance. Gene sequencing includes several methods or technologies that are used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. These genomics-based approaches are having a profound influence on the improvement of crops. Identification of all genes within a species allows an understanding of how important agronomic traits are controlled.It is a prerequisite resource for fully understanding the role of genes in development and efficiently exploiting the natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Following the publication of the first plant genome sequence, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), in 2000 the sequencing of large and complex genomes of crop species, facilitated by new sequencing technologies and bioinformatic approaches, has provided new opportunities for crop improvement. With fast development and wide applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genomic sequence information is within reach to aid the achievement of goals to decode life mysteries, make better crops, detect pathogens, improve life qualities and allows the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics allows discovering new genes and makes available large collections of molecular markers.

Key words: Gene sequencing, Next-generation sequencing (NGS), Genome, Molecular markers.

Full Text : PDF; Journal doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.18782

Cite this article: Mehraj, U. and Ahmad, M., Genome Sequencing and its Role in Plant Breeding, Int. J. Pure App. Biosci.5(6): 1650-1659 (2017). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.5922