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International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience (IJPAB)
Year : 2018, Volume : 6, Issue : 6
First page : (511) Last page : (517)
Article doi: :

Physicochemical Hazard Analysis of Milk and Khoa in Manual and Mechanical Production Processes in Parbhani City of
Maharashtra State of India

Bahirwal, P. S., Deshmukh, V. V.*, Waghamare R. N. and Vaidya M. S.

Department of Veterinary Public Health & Epidemiology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Parbhani
Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Sciences, Nagpur-440001
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
Received: 26.08.2018  |  Revised: 4.09.2018   |  Accepted: 13.09.2018  



The present study was aimed for physicochemical hazard analysis of Khoa production practices in and around Parbhani city of Maharashtra State, India. A total of six commercial Khoa production units consisting three each manual and mechanical methods were used during present experimentation. The collected samples were evaluated for adulteration and physicochemical of raw milk used for Khoa production in addition to identified CCP’S of production process was carried out. A total 24 samples were collected from each of units, 09 critical control points from each method were selected and 08 replicates were taken for hazard analysis. In present experiment, all raw milk samples were found to be negative for starch, urea, caustic soda and sodium chloride adulteration. Physicochemical analysis of raw milk samples was performed by using Cot on boiling and Alcohol test in manual Khoa production units. The result revealed that 8.3% samples was positive for Clot on boiling test and 25.00% for Alcohol test in manual, as against all samples were negative for mechanical Khoa production units for same. The Physicochemical quality assessment of raw milk used for Khoa production was done with the help of pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity and fat. The pH, titratable acidity and fat of raw milk did not differ significantly amongst manual and mechanical method. Whereas, specific gravity of raw milk were significantly differ (p<0.001) amongst manual and mechanical method. The physical quality assessment of Khoa revealed that whitish with tinge of brown colour was found in all samples (100%) prepared by manual method and 58.33% by mechanical method. The rich and nutty odour was noted in 83.33% samples of Khoa prepared by both the methods. The flavour of Khoa was observed as slightly sweet in 100.00 and 58.33% samples in manual and mechanical method, respectively. The smooth and granular texture of Khoa was observed in 100% manual method samples and 58.33% in mechanical method. The chemical quality assessment of Khoa in relation to moisture and titratable acidity revealed that a highly significant (p<0.01) difference was seen in both the parameter among both the methods.

Key words: Khoa, Milk,  Titratable acidity, Parbhani city

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Cite this article: Bahirwal, P.S., Deshmukh, V. V., Waghamare, R.N., Vaidya, M.S., Physicochemical Hazard Analysis of Milk and Khoa in Manual and Mechanical Production Processes in Parbhani City of Maharashtra State of India, Int. J. Pure App. Biosci.6(6): 511-517 (2018). doi: