ISSN (E) : 2582 – 2845

Awesome Logo
  • No. 772, Basant Vihar, Kota

    Rajasthan-324009 India

  • Call Us On

    +91 9784677044


Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences (IJPAB)
Year : 2019, Volume : 7, Issue : 5
First page : (297) Last page : (313)
Article doi: :

Agronomic and Genetic Biofortification with Fe, Zn of Cereal Crops - A Review

Suresh Dagadu Mhaske*, K. K. Agrawal and Manish Bhan
Department of Agronomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
Received: 28.06.2019  |  Revised: 30.07.2019   |  Accepted: 7.08.2019  


Amonge the different nutrients iron and zinc are two important nutrients in the human diet. Their deficiencies in humans lead to a variety of health-related problems. Iron and zinc biofortification of cereals is considered a cost-effective solution to overcome the malnutrition of these minerals. Biofortification aims at either increasing accumulation of these minerals in edible parts, endosperm, or to increase their bioavailability. Agronomic biofortification through fertilizer approaches could complement the existing breeding approach; for instance, foliar application of Zn fertilizer can increase grain Zn above the breeding target set by nutritionists. Iron and zinc fertilization management positively influence their accumulation in cereal grains. Regarding genetic strategies, quantitative genetic studies show the existence of ample variation for iron and zinc accumulation as well as inhibitors or promoters of their bioavailability in cereal grains. Genetically modified cereals developed by modulation of genes involved in iron and zinc homeostasis, or genes influencing bioavailability, have shown promising results. However, iron and zinc concentration were quantified in the whole grains during most of the studies, whereas a significant proportion of them is lost during milling. This makes it difficult to realistically assess the effectiveness of the different strategies. This review focuses on the common challenges and their possible solutions related to agronomic as well as genetic iron and zinc biofortification of cereals.

Keywords: Biofortification, bioavailability, Iron, Zinc.

Full Text : PDF; Journal doi :

Cite this article: Mhaske, S.D., Agrawal, K.K. & Bhan, M. (2019). Agronomic and Genetic Biofortification with Fe, Zn of Cereal Crops-A Review, Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci.7(5), 297-313. doi: