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Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences (IJPAB)
Year : 2020, Volume : 8, Issue : 6
First page : (436) Last page : (441)
Article doi: :

Rationale behind the Migration of Kanikaran tribes: Push and Pull Factors

J. Raj, Ana* and P. Sumathi1
*Scientist, ICAR – National Research Centre on Equines (NRCE), Hisar, Haryana – 1,
1Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology,
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 3
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
Received: 25.10.2020 | Revised: 27.11.2020 | Accepted: 2.12.2020 


According to census 2011, the population of tribes stood at 104 million in India constituting 8.6% of the nation’s total population. Of these 7 lakh tribes are in Tamil Nadu with 6 lakh in rural and a lakh in urban. The decadal change in rural-urban population of tribes are 19.8 per cent in rural and 34.2 per cent in urban. Kanyakumari district was chosen for the study since the decadal change of tribal population is very tremendous than any other district. (5.1 per cent in rural and 88.2 per cent in urban) The study was undertaken among the Kanikaran tribes of the district by selecting four highly populated tribal settlements through Proportionate Random Sampling technique.  The sample for the study consisted of 100 respondents (40 from Thachamalai, 39 from Arukani, 15 from Puravilai and 6 from Vellambi malai tribal settlements). The data were collected as push and pull factors with a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule and analysed by Garett Ranking Technique. Employment availability (72.80) took the first rank in active pull factors of migration followed by high income and working conditions (67.20). The tribal migrants placed high value on employment related factors. Threat from wild life (77.48) and lack of employment in their locality (70.52) were the active push factors reported by the tribal migrants. The other factors like declining trend in agriculture (57.08) and poverty (54.92) were also considered as crucial factors by a considerable percentage of respondents. The policy implications drawn out of the findings of the research study such as fencing of tribal settlements, encouragement of self-employment among tribes, introduction of successful agricultural technologies, implementation of forest act, 2006 and formation of migrant labour unions can be taken into consideration for limiting the distress migration of tribes and hence retain them for the betterment of traditional agriculture.

Keywords: Migration, Tribes, Factors, Employment, Kanikaran.

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Cite this article: Ana, R.J., & Sumathi, P. (2020). Rationale behind the Migration of Kanikaran tribes: Push and Pull Factors, Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. 8(6), 436-441. doi: